PRIVATE INVESTIGATOR - PRIVATE DETECTIVE - PRIVATDETEKTIV
LAWYERS / ACCOUNTANTS IN NINE COUNTRIES AROUND THE GLOBE.
New York-Dallas-São Paolo-Paris-Berlin-Stockholm-Kiev-Moscow-Beijing-Nairobi
1st January MMXVIII
Dear Corporate Citizen!
After thirty years of international business / industry experience, we have chosen to concentrate and develop our private / finance detective firm, assisting companies, individuals and organisations – with an emphasis on commerce and finance – in Scandinavia and northeast Europe, also into the Americas, southwest Europe, Africa and Asia.
Winston Churchill quipped that “America will do the right thing – once it has exhausted all other opportunities;” and it is wildly dangerous to assume that Russia’s future will simply be an extrapolition of its present, when even Russians say it is impossible to predict anything in their country – even the past; and the eurozone is confronted with a crisis of not just labor costs and prices – but of culture and work ethics, despite some of its members having pockets as deep as the Mariana Trench.
Surely politicians recognize that entrepreneurs accept levels of risk that no rational person would contemplate, albeit most people want one thing more than even love – peace of mind.
Decline is not a condition, but a choice and instead of letting out a cri du coeur and eating humble pie, we would like to see finance less proud and industry more secure.
The first imperative must be to restore security; without security, running a business successfully, is like having “turtle soup without the turtle”.
In extremis, amid global financial and trade conflicts, a self-sufficient America might see things occur that have not occurred before, although they have occurred in Europe, albeit [America] might confound the unusual with the abstruse.
Being able to develop Walhallen Finance / Private Detectives into a truly integrated, global and robustly competent group is a privilege, and this mainly due to having the opportunity of gathering the most talented private investigators/ private detectives available: from Russia-Ukraine-Germany-Sweden-Norway-France-China-USA-Kenya and Brazil.
Our private detectives, from armed forces-intelligence services-business-academia, will convincingly add value to customers and clients with positive terra firma ambitions for years ahead – and, not only in their own countries, albeit worldwide, which is our factual modus operandi: A Global Private Finance and Business Detective, specialising in industrial undercover work and counterindustrial espionage, including advanced Technical Surveillance CounterMeasures (TSCM) and computer forensics.
As noted in a Walhallen Intelligence / Private Detective Estimate Report: "The hostile intelligence threat to corporate / company computer systems is magnified by the enormous growth in the number and power of computers, the vast amount of data contained in them, as well as dismal Internet security measures. Computers multiply hugely the information to which a single individual may obtain access, hence the vast risk." For businesses, as well as for private individuals, we design, customise and implement encryption communications and storage software; 100% unbreakable.
Rise of the incognito Internet does not imply that the maxim of "nothing to hide, nothing to fear" should apply to Internet security... The peculiar psychology of code-breaking often involves one genius trying to work out what another genius has done, at times resulting in the most appalling carnage. To break a code - or the most abstruse cryptogram, even for an experienced private detective / private investigator - is to extend a hand to grasp the sky and hope to catch a bird.
“Trade follows the flag," declared Cecil Rhodes, and as globalization forces many companies to move strategic assets abroad, even to another continent – terra nullius / no man’s land, there is a need to be en garde, if not actually aux armes. However, the Mafia - the Mob - the Cosa Nostra - the Camorra - the 'Ndrangheta - the Yakuza, and other criminal movements or structures are cunning, no more.
(The properties of an organised movement, criminal or honourable, are spontaneity, impulsiveness, dynamic expansiveness - and a short life. The properties of a similar structure are inertia, resilience, and an amazing, almost instinctive, ability to survive.
The principle of the vis inertiae, for example, seems to be identical in physics and metaphysics/human design. It is not more true in the former, that a large body is with more difficulty set in motion than a smaller one, and that its subsequent momentum is commensurate with this difficulty, than it is, in the latter, that intellects of the vaster capacity, while more forcible, more constant, and more eventful in their movements than those of inferior grade, are yet the less readily moved, and more embarrassed and full of hesitation in the first few steps of their progress.)
Formidable as they might be, Mafia button-men do not have the intelligence training of a professional private detective/private investigator, and are tabby cats next to panthers in this particular jungle. As private detective-s/private investigator-s we combat these daggers with inflexible determination, however, given the Underworld's predilection for deception, unique situations present us with some strange bedfellows.
In contacts with these, and other monstra horrendum - before contacting private detectives / private investigators - I would paraphrase Theodore Roosevelt: "Speak softly, but carry a big stick." Often, when you want adult behaviour, treat people like babies; while we believe humans are rational, their behaviour is constantly the opposite.
To be beaten by one of your own is not as bad as be beaten by a foreign one, however, and roaring like a mouse, fighting like a flea singing “Give me your arm, old tod; Help me down Cemetary Road” would make us appear useful idiots. A proper attitude can turn a burden to a blessing, a trial to a triumph. As Johann Wolfgang von Goethe would have expressed it: "Unglück ist auch gut."
Being part of a diaspora in dire straits, one can be comfortable imagining existing alongside an independent judiciary rather than in a smash’n grab society – Raubwirtschaft. However, possession is nine tenths of the law, and with foreign officials reasoning – “I am with my brother against a cousin, and with my cousin against a stranger”, many bona fide intentions will be jeopardized.
Growth and developing economies hide a thousand sins, and with the cruel clarity afforded by distance, you might realize you have interests rather than friends. For example, the recent murder of a middle-aged (41 year-old) British businessman – supposedly Aston Martin’srepresentative in Beijing – and a close friend of one of China’s fourteen most powerful politicians (Bo Xilai-now imprisoned), adds an international dimension to this country’s most serious political upheaval in two decades, and exposes uncomfortable truths about how business and politics are conducted in the world’s second-largest economy.
In this area of the world your enemy's enemy is probably your enemy too. A friendly feeling does not equalize a friendly intent; alas, often au contraire, a hostile intent blends very well with a friendly feeling.
Always use international, experienced private detective-s / private investigator-s in developing / transition economy countries when you need fast, accurate and reliable CCCI [Control-Command-Communication-Intelligence]. There are effective and efficient bureaus beyond Walhallen - that we can recommend - for a great many lesser undertakings.
Too tough a bargaining for low private detective / private investigator retainer fees could cost you dearly, indeed - nota bene! - more precious things. Free armchair advice is always rich and plentiful.
The verb corrumpere means destroy in Latin, and having seen that [corruption], as plaintiffs’ private detectives in commercial and criminal courts numerous times, we agreed to co-found The International Intelligence Institute of Commerce (www.wiiic.org). The Principal Investigator of WIIIC welcomes any information of corruption, grand thefts, miscarriages of justice etc. “Shame and silence are cousins” – right?
The Institute will be able to provide unbiased Independent Business Resolutions’ Schemes - lightening the burden of courts, prosecutors, lawyers, accountants - who often miss the “red flags” that private investigators detect, as well as carry out Forensic Audits and Impairment Tests; and this in addition to hosting an academic research and education group focusing on Intellectual Property and Patented Technology.
The Romans used to assess situations metaphorically, e g: Cum catapultae proscripta erunt, tum soli proscript catapultas habebunt – "When catapults are outlawed, only outlaws will have catapults". Their reasoning implies “rules replace common sense and reason”.
In a fair and just society, with archaic European and American legal practices – often hiding behind procedure – and an international institutional machinery that grinds along at a pace that would shame snails, preparedness is the key to success and victory. Western governments also often “piggy-back” on existing national investigations rather than undertake their own probes, creating “double jeopardy” by triggering separate prosecutions of the same case in different jurisdictions.
You learn in my business there aren't any rules, whether in corporate or business fraud cases, internet security or computer forensics cases, divorce or alimony cases; you are dealing with infinitely variable factors - the human heart and mind. My role is not to have a formula, and not to take one single thing for granted. It is my business to know what other people do not know ... in particular regarding:
-corporate and international fraud, proof and accounting documentation, court preparations, taxes/VAT- calculations, general
surveillance and personal protection.
-internet security, computer forensics and cryptography (the latter meaning "secret writing" in Greek).
-matrimonial affairs - divorce, child custody, infidelity and alimony.
There are truths which are not for all men, nor for all times; albeit, to a great mind nothing is little, and the humbler of our private detective / private investigator clients are usually the more interesting. Characterizing sought-after information as elementary does not, of course, imply that it is easy to get or even that it is a simple matter.
As a private detective since many years - in search of evidence and the truth - I prefer to begin at the beginning. Crime is common. Logic is rare. Therefore it is upon the logic rather than upon the crime that we should dwell.
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Is there an unquestionable Logic, an absolute Evidence or a perfect Truth? The estimation of a theory is not simply determined by its truth. It also depends upon the importance of its subject, and the extent of its applications; beyond which something must still be left to the arbitrariness of human opinion.*1)
In one respect, the science of logics differs from all others; the perfection of its method is chiefly valuable as an evidence of the speculative truth of its principles. To supersede the employment of common reason, or to subject it to the rigour of technical forms, would be the last desire of one who knows the value of that intellectual toil and warfare which imparts to the mind an athletic vigour, and teaches it to contend with difficulties and to rely upon itself in emergencies.
That which renders logic possible, is the existence in our minds of general notions, - our ability to conceive of a class, and to designate its individual members by a common name. The theory of logic is thus intimately connected with that of language. A successful attempt to express logical propositions by symbols, the laws of whose combinations should be founded upon the laws of the mental processes which they represent, would, so far, be a step towards a philosophical language.
Regarding logic as a branch of philosophy, and defining philosophy as the “science of a real existence,” and “the research of causes,” and assigning as its main business the investigation of the “why,” while mathematics display only the “that,” we contend, not simply, that the superiority rests with the study of logic.*2)
The pursuits of the mathematician, or the technician, “have not only not trained him to that acute scent,” to that delicate, almost instinctive, tact which, in the twilight of probability, the search and discrimination of its finer facts demand; they have gone to cloud his vision, to indurate his touch, to all but the blazing light, the iron chain of demonstration, and left him out of the narrow confines of his science, to a passive credulity in any premises, or to an absolute incredulity in all.
(The reason of which is cultivated by the abstractly logical is the only valuable form available, not reason educed by mathematical study. The mathematics are the science of form and quantity; mathematical reasoning is merely logic applied to observation upon form and quantity. The great error lies in supposing that even the truths of what is called pure algebra, are abstract or general truths.
Mathematical axioms are not axioms of general truth. What is true of relation - of form and quantity - is often grossly false in regard to morals, for example. In this latter science it is very usually untrue that the aggregated parts are equal to the whole. In chemistry also the axiom fails. In the consideration of motive it fails; for two motives, each of a given value, have not, necessarily, a value when united, equal to the sum of their values apart.)*3)
It is an important observation, which has more than once been made, that it is one thing to arrive at correct premises, and another thing to deduce logical conclusions, and that the business of life depends more upon the former than upon the latter. The study of the exact sciences may teach us the one, and it may give us some general preparation of knowledge and of practice for the attainment of the other, but it is to the union of thought with action, in the field of Practical Logic, the arena of Human Life, that we are to look for its fuller and more perfect accomplishment.
If we want to study the problems of truth and falsehood, of the agreement and disagreement of propositions with reality, of the nature of assertion, assumption and question, we shall with great advantage look at primitive forms of language in which these forms of thinking appear without confusing background of highly complicated processes of thought.
When we look at such simple forms of language, the mental mist which seems to enshroud our ordinary use of language disappears. We see activities, reactions, which are clear-cut and transparent. On the other hand we recognize in these simple processes forms of language not separated by a break from our more complicated ones. We see that we can build up the complicated forms from the primitive ones by gradually adding new forms.
Whether e g “Brick” means the same in the primitive language as it does in ours; this goes with our contention that the simpler language is not therefore an incomplete form of the more complicated one. We make it plain that words have the meanings we give them, and that it would be a confusion to think of an investigation into their real meaning.
If you have not distinguished between a language and a notation, you may hardly see any difference between following a language and following a notation. But in that case you may well be unclear about the difficulties in connection with the relation between language and logic. Much of all this can be answered by emphasizing that speaking and writing belong to intercourse with other people. The signs get their life there, and that is why the language is not just a mechanism.
What is the meaning of a word? Let us attack this question by asking, first, what is an explanation of the meaning of a word; what does the explanation of a word look like? The way this question helps us is analogous to the way the question “how do we measure a length?” helps us to understand “what is length?”
Asking first “What’s an explanation of meaning?” has two advantages. You in a sense bring the question “what is meaning?” down to earth. For, surely, to understand the meaning of “meaning” you ought also to understand the meaning of “explanation of meaning”.
What one generally calls “explanations of the meaning of a word” can, very roughly, be divided into verbal and ostensive definitions. If the definition explains the meaning of a word, surely it can’t be essential that you should have heard the word before. It is the ostensive definition’s business to give it a meaning.
I point this out to remove, once and for all, the idea that the words of the ostensive definition predicate something of the defined; the confusion is grave between the sentence “this is criminal”, attributing the [culpable] etiquette to some human behaviour or act, and the ostensive definition “this is called criminal”.
However, the thought is not [always] the same as the sentence; for an English and a French sentence, which are utterly different, can express the same thought. A phrase or sentence has sense, if we give it sense. We know what a word, or a row of words, means in certain contexts, at specific times and/or geographical locations. *4)
Giving a reason for something one did or said means showing a way which leads to this action. At this point, however, another confusion sets in, that between reason and cause. One is led into this confusion by the ambiguous use of the word “why”. This when the chain of reasons has come to an end and still the question “why” is asked, one is inclined to give a cause instead of a reason.
The difference between the grammars of “reason” and “cause” is quite similar to that between the grammars of “motive” and “cause”. Of the cause one can say that one can not know it but can only conjecture it. For a private detective / private investigator this is of vital importance de jure!
The double use of the word “why”, asking for the cause and asking for the motive, together with the idea that we can know, and not only conjecture, our motives, gives rise to the confusion that a motive is a cause of which we are immediately aware, a cause ‘seen from the inside’, or a cause experienced. Giving a reason is like giving a calculation by which you have arrived at a certain result.
(In themselvselves, causes can be divided or refined into three sub-groups: in fieri causes, i e in becoming or in progress dittos; in esse causes, i e in actual existence dittos; and, lastly, in posse causes, i e in potential or in the state of being possible dittos. As private detectives / private investigators we often encounter what could best be conceived by the Greek word aitia, meaning both cause and guilt.)
Instead of “craving for legal generality” I could also have said “the contemptuous attitude towards the particular case”. If, e g, someone tries to explain the concept of number and tells us that such and such a definition will not do or is clumsy because it only applies to, say, finite cardinals I should answer that the mere fact that he could have given such a limited definition, of for example a crime sequence, makes this definition extremely important to us. (Elegance is not what we are trying for as truth seekers.)
Philosophy, as we use the word, is a fight against the fascination which forms of expression exert upon us. Many questions can be raised. Sokrates asked: “What is knowledge?” Saint Augustine asked: “What is time?” We ask: “How can we hang a thief who does not exist?” One answer to the latter can, by a private detective – private investigator, be put in this form: “We can not hang him when he does not exist, but we can look for him when he does not exist.”
Our investigative method is purely descriptive; the descriptions we give are not hints of explanations. Think of words as instruments characterized by their use [...] “It is no act of insight which makes us use the rule-s as we do,” because there is an idea that ‘something must make us’ do what we do. And this again joins on to the confusion between cause and reason. We need have no reason to follow the rules as we do. The chain of reasons has an end.
Many pundits will say, no doubt, please use the language of the law, that “to make out your case”. This may be the practice in law, but it is not the usage of reason. My ultimate object is only the truth. Reason feels its way, in its search for the true.
Many find it sagacious to echo the small talk of lawyers, who, for the most part, content themselves with echoing the rectangular precepts of the courts. I would here observe that very much of what is rejected as evidence by a court is the best evidence to the intellect. For the court, guided itself by the general principles of evidence – the recognised and booked principles – is averse from swerving at particular instances.
Participants in the system or legal complex will state that "we're doing what we're supposed to be doing - we're weighing the evidence, we're thinking it through, in a collective, collaborative, bipartisan way"; - and that is old hat. People don't have differences because they have different information or intelligence. We are often all looking at the same things. I think it depends more on your past experience, and the old rule that "one can only be judged by one's peers" has great bearing and validity.
Do we have revolutionary, or evolutionary, true justice; or the "Absolute paradox" of excessive cleverness? All professions are a conspiracy against the laity, and one way that conspiracy manifests itself, especially amongst lawyers, is in the use of jargong, so that outsiders cannot follow what is going on.
Another tendency is to belittle the contribution that other professionals, more or less intelligent, make. In order to eradicate "inconvenient truths" we might fall back on a kind of nominal legalism, in which the law is less protecting the citizenry than being an instrument of power.
In support of these and other charges, as a private detective / private investigator, both argument and copious authority are adduced. I shall not attempt a complete discussion of the topics which are suggested by these remarks. My object is not controversy, and the observations made earlier are offered not in the spirit of antagonism, albeit in the hope of contributing to the formation of just views upon an important subject.
You can be too profound. Truth is not always in a well. In fact, as regards the more important knowledge, I do believe that she is invariably superficial. The depth lies in the valleys where we seek the truth, and not upon the mountain-tops where the truth is found.
Investigating serious crime and fraud globally, I can not abstain from reflecting over that a man is not what he does so much as what he is allowed to do; otherwise what would each of us not do to change the world and our lives... Whatever the mix of motives, we are all, through our upbringing, entombed by reinforced structures of dogma and reason. Fear buttress the system overall.
The future will tell us what to do; more than ever we live for the moment, and no amount of looking back or forward offers any explanation or guide, only a wall of impenetrable darkness.
As the famous Swedish chancellor Axel Oxenstierna told his son during the seventeenth-century Thirty Years War: "You see, my son, by how little wisdom the world is ruled."
Appearing positive is, though, as always, a self-serving argumentum e silentio.
(There are excerpts from The Ethics herein.)
*1) "Strictly a Science"; also "an Art." - Whately's Elements of Logic. Indeed ought we not to regard all Art as applied Science; unless we are willing, with "the multitude," to consider Art as "guessing and aiming well"? - Plato, Philebus.
*2) Alas, Aristotle says: The Why belongs to mathematicians, for they have the demonstrations of Causes. It must be added that Aristotle's view is consistent with the sense (albeit an erronous one) which in various parts of his writings he virtually assigns to the word Cause, viz. an antecedent in Logic, a sense according to which the premises might be said to be the cause of the conclusions. This view appears to me to give even to his physical inquiries much of their peculiar character.
*3) Mr Dawson of Sedberg in a small treatise - written in the early 19th century - lays down three axioms as the foundation of his motive and truth reasoning: I) If we make a false supposition, and reason justly from it, a contradiction or absurdity will be contained in the conclusion; II) Every action or exertion voluntarily made is with a design, a motive, or in hopes of obtaining some end; III) All practical principles must either be founded in truth, or believed to be so for the moment that they operate.
*4) In [complex] contexts, words and meanings do not only have to be defined and/or stipulated, but understood in the probable "objective situation" affected by at least two elements, which are likely to be ever-present; they are the element of geographical location and the element of time. By "objective situation" I mean the situation stripped of the subjective characteristics with which a prejudiced human observer is almost certain to endow it. I use the word "probable," because, whereas knowledge of the objective situation is of highest desirability, any frail human being probably can never apprehend the true objective fact. He/she should, however, strive until it hurts.
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Modern business and private lives are complex, and many sang-froid judges realize not even they are equipped to parse the facts; proximity to real power, though, is intoxicating – and misplaced pride melts away. Retaining an International Private Detective should be a “game-changer” – levelling the playing field; not looking sheepish, or even harebrained – without proof or evidence.
Throughout college- and university, I trained and served as an air artillery aviator, worked as a shop/department store detective, ordinary guard, heavily armed body-guard for Ambassadors / Charge d’Affaires from Germany, England, Yugoslavia, the U.S., Iran and Russia, as well as within the Swedish Penitentiary / Prison Authority; later as chairman of an authorized guard- and patrol company, and as an international legal administrator, approved by Swedish courts, in Poland, Russia and Ukraine.
My partners and associates may on occasion exceed me in experience and ability, albeit, the private detective team courage d'esprit will always be decisive and of paramount importance. The International Corporate Detective Process is one of group - as opposed to individual - effort; there must [almost always] be a complicated and careful division of labour, which is peculiar to the nature of the enterprise, and by no means characteristic of all familiar and homely searches for the truth.
Detective intelligence work remains the simple, natural endeavour to get the sort of knowledge upon which a successful course of action can be rested. If the information is there, we'll find it (and exploit it), as much as Carl Hempel stated: "All ravens are black. What is not black, is not a raven." A deeper look at this particular puzzle, however, reveals that the Raven paradox is not just a philosophical test-of-wits, but has implications for the way we think about observation and proof.
If the preceding text contains words new to the reader-s, if they seem unduly concerned with semantics, I plead, as once John Locke, that, "It may perhaps be censured an impertinent criticism in a discourse of this nature to find fault with words and names that have obtained in the world. And yet possibly it may not be amiss to offer new ones when the old are apt to lead men into mistakes, ..."
On the other hand, I don't suppose there's anything in here that somebody somewhere doesn't covet. The detective Underworld is not only queerer than we suppose; it is quereer than we can suppose.
A crisis is a terrible thing to waste – and should worse come to worse – it’s not part of private detectives’ job description to add mirth to the party, but provide and demonstrate solid, tangible, admissible evidence and stark proof...
Thank you for reading my introduction.
Claes Reinhold Ekman
Claes Reinhold Ekman
Walhallen Detective Group
"LIFE WAS NEVER MEANT TO BE FAIR; RIGHT?" www.eji.org / Equal Justice Initiative